Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pa Element or Protactinium Facts

Dad Element or Protactinium Facts Protactinium is a radioactive component anticipated to exist in 1871 by Mendeleev, in spite of the fact that it was not found until 1917 or detached until 1934. The component has nuclear number 91 and component image Pa. Like most components on the occasional table, protactinium is a silver-hued metal. Be that as it may, the metal is risky to deal with on the grounds that it and its mixes are both poisonous and radioactive. Here are helpful and fascinating Pa component realities: Name: Protactinium (already brevium and afterward protoactinium, yet the IUPAC abbreviated the name to protactinium in 1949 to make the component name simpler to articulate) Nuclear Number: 91 Image: Pa Nuclear Weight: 231.03588 Revelation: Fajans Gohring 1913; Fredrich Soddy, John Cranston, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner 1917 (England/France). Dmitri Mendeleev anticipated the existed of a component among thorium and uranium on the intermittent table. In any case, the actinide bunch was not known around then. William Crookes detached protactinium from uranium in 1900, yet he couldn't describe it, so doesn't get acknowledgment for revelation. Protactinium was not detached as an unadulterated component until 1934 by Aristid von Grosse. Electron Configuration: [Rn] 7s2 5f2 6d1 Word Origin: Greek protos, which means first. Fajans and Gohring in 1913 named the component brevium, in light of the fact that the isotope they found, Pa-234, was brief. At the point when Pa-231 was distinguished by Hahn and Meitner in 1918, the name protoactinium was received in light of the fact that this name was viewed as increasingly steady with the qualities of the most bottomless isotope (protactinium structures actinium when it radioactively rots). In 1949, the name protoactinium was abbreviated to protactinium. Isotopes: Protactinium has 13 isotopes. The most widely recognized isotope is Pa-231, which has a half-existence of 32,500 years. The primary isotope to be found was Pa-234, which was additionally called UX2. Dad 234 is a brief individual from the normally happening U-238 rot arrangement. The more extended lived isotope, Pa-231, was distinguished by Hahn and Meitner in 1918. Properties: The nuclear load of protactinium is 231.0359, its softening point is 1600 °C, explicit gravity has been determined to be 15.37, with a valence of 4 or 5. Protactinium has a splendid metallic radiance which is held for some time in air. The component is superconductive underneath 1.4K. A few protactinium mixes are known, some of which are shaded. Protactinium is an alpha producer (5.0 MeV) and is a radiological danger which requires uncommon dealing with. Protactinium is one of the rarest and most costly normally happening components. Sources: The component happens in pitchblende to the degree of around 1 section Pa-231 to 10 million sections mineral. When all is said in done, Pa just happens at a centralization of a couple of parts for every trillion in the Earths outside layer. While initially secluded from uranium metals, today protactinium is made as a parting middle of the road in thorium high-temperature atomic reactors. Other Interesting Protactinium Facts In arrangement, the 5 oxidation state rapidly consolidates with hydroxide particles to shape (radioactive) hydroxy-oxide solids that adhere to the outside of the container.Protactinium has no stable isotopes.Handling of protactinium is like that of plutonium, because of its strong radioactivity.Even on the off chance that it was not radioactive, protactinium would introduce a wellbeing hazard on the grounds that the component is likewise a harmful metal.The biggest measure of protactinium acquired to date was 125 grams, which the Great Britain Atomic Energy Authority removed from 60 tons of atomic waste.Although protactinium has barely any utilizations beside examine purposes, it might be joined with the isotope thorium-230 to date marine sediments.The evaluated cost of one gram of protactinium is about $280. Component Classification: Radioactive Rare Earth (Actinide) Thickness (g/cc): 15.37 Softening Point (K): 2113 Breaking point (K): 4300 Appearance: shimmering white, radioactive metal Nuclear Radius (pm): 161 Nuclear Volume (cc/mol): 15.0 Ionic Radius: 89 (5e) 113 (3e) Explicit Heat (20 °C J/g mol): 0.121 Combination Heat (kJ/mol): 16.7 Vanishing Heat (kJ/mol): 481.2 Pauling Negativity Number: 1.5 Oxidation States: 5, 4 Cross section Structure: Tetragonal Cross section Constant (Ã… ): 3.920 Sources Emsley, John (2011). Natures structure hinders: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7.Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elementsâ (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.Hammond, C. R. (2004). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physicsâ (81st ed.). CRC press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. Come back to the Periodic Table

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Feeling Sick When You Miss a Dose of Your Antidepressant

Feeling Sick When You Miss a Dose of Your Antidepressant Depression Treatment Medication Print Why Do I Feel Sick When I Miss a Dose of My Antidepressant? By Nancy Schimelpfening Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be. Learn about our editorial policy Nancy Schimelpfening Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on December 06, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 04, 2020 Depression Overview Types Symptoms Causes & Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatment Coping ADA & Your Rights Depression in Kids Emma Kim/Getty Images Like many people, youve probably taken your antidepressant late a few  times, or even forgotten to take it altogether for a day or two. If you sometimes feel like you have the flu with an upset stomach, achiness, and dizziness when this happens, you may be experiencing whats known as discontinuation syndrome. Though symptoms of discontinuation syndrome can happen when you significantly lower your dose or suddenly stop taking any type of antidepressant, theyre more likely to happen with certain antidepressants.?? Symptoms Common symptoms of discontinuation syndrome include: DizzinessFatigueNauseaHeadacheMuscle painInsomniaAnxietyAgitationTremorBlurred visionIrritabilityChillsTingling sensationsVivid dreamsRunny noseSweating Less common symptoms are: Electric shock sensationsLack of coordinationHallucinationsHypertension For many people, these symptoms may be quite mild, but others may find them particularly difficult to cope with.?? Causes The most common causes of discontinuation syndrome include: Suddenly stopping your antidepressant: If youve been taking an antidepressant for a month or more and you suddenly quit taking it, youre far more likely to have discontinuation symptoms than if you had tapered off slowly.?? It may take one to four days before you notice symptoms.Tapering off of your antidepressant too quickly: Especially if youve been taking a high dose or youve been on an antidepressant for an extended period of time, a slow and gradual tapering schedule is necessary to prevent discontinuation symptoms.??Missing or skipping a dose or two of your antidepressant: Its estimated that up to 70 percent of people who take antidepressants skip doses here and there. However, doing this increases your risk of developing discontinuation symptoms, especially if youre taking an antidepressant with a short half-life. These types are eliminated from your body so rapidly that discontinuation symptoms may appear fairly soon after a missed dose, sometimes within hours.??Switching to a different formulation: Though this isnt common, if youre going from a brand name antidepressant to a generic or from one generic to another made by a different company, the formulation may be different enough that you experience discontinuation symptoms.?? As noted above, suddenly discontinuing or significantly and quickly lowering your dose of any type of antidepressant puts you at risk for discontinuation symptoms. The most common culprit seems to be immediate-release Effexor (venlafaxine) because it has a half-life as short as three to five hours and its also the most likely antidepressant to cause these symptoms when you miss a dose or take it late. Other more common culprits of discontinuation syndrome include Paxil (paroxetine), Pristiq (desvenlafaxine), Zoloft (sertraline), Elavil (amitriptyline), Tofranil (imipramine), and all monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).?? Prevention So how can you prevent discontinuation symptoms from happening? First, if you do miss a dose of your antidepressant, go ahead and take it as soon as you remember, unless its close to time for your next dose. In that case, dont double up; just skip the missed dose and take your next dose as usual.?? Other ways to prevent discontinuation syndrome include: Take your medicine on time. The best way to avoid having these symptoms is to be very careful with properly timing your medication dose.  Taking your medication as prescribed also makes it as effective as possible in treating your depression symptoms.?? One good way to make sure you take your medicine at the right time is to set alarms in your calendar or clock on your smartphone or computer. If youre not a techie, consider using an old-fashioned alarm clock, writing yourself notes, leaving your medicine out where you can see it, setting an alarm on your watch, and/or getting a pill box for each day of the week.Think about switching antidepressants. If youre finding taking your medication on time difficult to manage, consider asking your doctor about trying a different antidepressant with a longer half-life or an extended-release formula so you dont have to take it as often.  For instance, Prozac (fluoxetine) has a half-life of four to six days, so it takes longer to completely clear out of your body than other antidepressants. This means that the likelihood of having discontinuation symptoms if you miss a dose is pretty low.??Dont ever stop your antidepressant without your doctors knowledge. If you ever need to stop taking your antidepressant altogether, you should always consult with your doctor first.  Depending on what youre taking, how long youve been taking it, and the dosage, he or she can help you avoid discontinuation syndrome by creating a plan to gradually and slowly taper you off your medication if needed.?? A Word From Verywell Discontinuation syndrome is quite common, occurring in an estimated 20 percent to 33 percent of people who have taken antidepressants.?? Although many experts refer to this phenomenon as withdrawal, experiencing antidepressant discontinuation syndrome doesnt mean that youre addicted.  Antidepressants are rarely habit forming and they dont create the cravings, euphoric effects, tolerance, or drug-seeking behavior that are all seen with drugs of abuse.?? Another difference is that symptoms of discontinuation syndrome are generally milder and last for less time than symptoms of illicit drug withdrawal. Rest assured that if you do experience these symptoms, they generally tend to be mild, usually go away within one to two weeks, and are easily treatable if they do become moderate or severe.?? Stay in close contact with your doctor if youre discontinuing your antidepressant so he or she can minimize any discontinuation symptoms you may have.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

[Uk Model Essay from Exam Board- Level 4] Do You Agree...

(40 MARK) Whereas sources 4 and 6 suggest that Henry had given all power to Wolsey, source 5 contradicts this argument, describing how the king had overall power. Source 4, an extract from Scarisbrick ‘Henry VIII,’ gives the impression that Henry gave all power to Wolsey, whilst he â€Å"hunted and jousted.† Cavendish then states how the king had â€Å"surrendered the cares of the state into the Cardinal’s hands.† This gives the impression that Wolsey had the powers of the king and was in charge of running the country efficiently. This is supported by source 6, where Henry asks Wolsey to watch some of the key nobility as well as â€Å"any others of whom you are superior.† This is clearly Henry giving Wolsey freedom to act as he wishes, thus†¦show more content†¦The author Lotherington describes how government was â€Å"dominated by†¦competing groups† but that overall the â€Å"source of all power was the king.† Lotherington argues that as Wolsey lacked the â€Å"intimate daily contact† enjoyed by others within the court this meant Wolsey was not all powerful. Also, th e king also looked to his Privy Council and Gentlemen’s bedchamber for advice on issues, as well as Wolsey, which shows that Henry shared the power throughout the court. Saying this however, Wolsey had had more power than others (as seen in the Elthem Ordinances) where Wolsey halved the members of Henry’s gentlemen of the Bedchambers from twelve to six, and moved key advisors overseas. This suggests that although the power was shared, Wolsey could still decide who the king received advice from, which indirectly could be interpreted as Wolsey in total control. Also, although source 5 describes the power of the factions Lotherington also states how Wolsey â€Å"controlled the distribution of patronage† which was essential to gain power and status. This gives the impression that Wolsey had overall control of government, and could either air or hinder the careers of the â€Å"ambitious men.† Saying this however, once the amicable grant failed in 1525 Henry lo st faith in Wolsey. This allowed the competing factions, many of whom opposed Wolsey due to his power, to undermine his authority which eventually led to his disapproval and eventually arrest for treason. This

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Amerindian before Columbus and the Physical Geography of the Caribbean Free Essays

Much of America history is recorded from the time Columbus and his team of explores landed in the Caribbean region. The first reaction to establishment of Spanish in the Caribbean region was the policy of extermination in which millions of the original inhabitants lost their life.   Although it has become controversial on the exact number of inhabitants living in the region before the coming of the Columbus, it remains clear there were a large number of indigenous people and the coming of Columbus really changed their life. We will write a custom essay sample on Amerindian before Columbus and the Physical Geography of the Caribbean or any similar topic only for you Order Now The nature of the Native Americans remains a controversial issue since it is argued that on his arrival Christopher Columbus mistook the inhabitants for Indians. This is because he though he had arrived in East Indies since he was seeking sea route to India. The culture of Amerindian before Columbus The pre-Columbian civilization in the region is though to have been quite advances more that what was projected at the time. It has been revealed that there was a high level of development from social organization to development in agriculture and other sciences which were applied in agriculture and in political expansion. Notably among this civilization was the expansive Maya empire which had flourished and expanded from Mexico to Central American but which later collapsed owing to social and political strife, diseases and other ecological disasters, and man other factors (Mann, 1999). The geography of the region shows a very fertile soil and seasons of heavy rainfall. This means that the area had a very high agricultural potential which was well exploited by the inhabitants. The economic landscape of the people before the coming of Europeans is mixed. While a good number of the indigenous inhabitants were hunters and gatherers, there was also a good number which practiced aquaculture and agriculture. There is evidence that some of the people lived on mixed agriculture keeping animals and growing crops. Therefore we can say that before the coming of Columbus, the original inhabitants had their own organized social life and varying economic activities in line with the rich agricultural potential of the land. When the European came and conquered the region, there were several changes that took place. First they immediately realized the rich agricultural potential of the land and their settlement pattern was concentrated in rich agricultural areas. What followed was mass extermination of the indigenous inhabitants so as to set up large scale lands for the Europeans. It is in this land that they grew sugar plantations and other cash crops. This led to massive enslavement of the indigenous people in order to provide labor in these large plantations. The setting up of plantations changed the approach that Europeans were using in dealing with the native. The policy of mass extermination  Ã‚   quickly changed to mass enslavement to provide free labor. There was also discovery of mineral like gold which led toe increased trade and setting up of industries. (Mann, 1999) Conclusion It is still controversial whether Columbus discovered South America or not. However there were original inhabitants in the land who Columbus referred to as Indians. The inhabitants were social organized and they practiced agriculture although a good number were hunters and gatherers. When European came they realized the agricultural potential of the land and immediately set up large plantation where they enslaved the indigenous people to provide free labor. Reference: Mann, C. (1999): New Revelation of the Americans before Columbus. New York: Knopf Publishing How to cite Amerindian before Columbus and the Physical Geography of the Caribbean, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Mans Attitude Towards Nature As Being Superior Essays -

Man's Attitude Towards Nature as Being Superior As mans attitude towards nature evolved, western culture perceived man as the central and most important part of nature. This egocentric attitude has acted to the extreme detriment of nature. Yes, I believe this to be true and I will prove it by looking at resourcism and speciesism. Resourcism is the exploitation of the worlds resources. Our consumption rate, especially in the western world, is overwhelming. In the beginning, we were a hunter and gatherer society, perceiving man and animals as equals. Everything was shared, there was no claims of ownership, especially land. The two most significant events in our conquest of the planet was the creation of agriculture and the industrial revolution. The development of agriculture gave us control over what we grew and ate. Mass amounts of land were cleared in order to make room for new crop fields. Science is considered to be knowledge, knowledge is power and therefore science is mastery. The continued advancement of science created what is known as the industrial revolution. This is where our over consumption began. We were now able to drill into the earth and extract unrenewable resources and make them into many new products. This attitude of power and control over the resources of the earth has lead us to think of ourselves as the most important part of nature. We took what the earth had to offer, and there was no one to stop us. Speciesism is the exploitation of plants and animals. At first, we feared animals but once we domesticated animals we gained a sense of power and dominance. We now view animals as commodities, curiosities, and even as our selves. As commodities, we sell, buy and hunt animals. Fish are considered to be a commodity, so are domesticated animals as well as some wild animals. As curiosities, we have animals for entertainment. Zoos, circuses, bullfights, marine land, etc. . The problem with this is the animals are kept in cages and often have poor living conditions, they are to some, being held captive. Many people would prefer watching them in their natural habitats doing natural things. Bears do not normally roll on balls in bright coloured skirts just so people can laugh. This is degrading to the animals but once again it reminds us that we are the top species, the one who controls all the others. We even view animals as our selves, this is true when it comes to children's enjoyment. Stuffed animals, cartoons and especially Walt Disney depict animals as humans. In cartoons we see animals talking like us, walking like us, doing all the things we normally do. Children are exposed to this egocentric attitude at a very early age, almost every child will want to visit disney world. With plants, it is in our gardening that we exemplify control. We all know of those large gardens with mazes that are geometrically correct, notice how every hedge is trimmed perfectly. In the hunter and gather society, their hierarchy had animals and humans as equals, but today we have god at the top, humans in the middle and nature at the bottom. Some believe that animals were created for our benefit this belief which I hold myself comes from Genesis, the first book in the bible. Chapter 1, verse 26 says "And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth". In conclusion, we now view our selves as the central and most important part of nature. It is this new attitude that has acted to the excessive degradation of nature. Things are still in the process of changing, with the environment high on our list of priorities, we are beginning to view nature in a different light, as something to be protected and preserved for future generations.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Case For The Defence InDepth Review essays

The Case For The Defence InDepth Review essays My fascination with the Judicial System Structure of today's society was furthered and strengthened after reading and analyzing the works of Edward Greenspan. This superbly written biography recollecting past cases and important events in Greenspan's life allowed myself, the reader, to learn more about Jurisprudence and the Criminal Code. The entire casebook revolves around several main themes including the balance of Positive & Natural influences in the courtroom, whether a lawyer's consience intervenes with his duty as a counsellor, and the alarming rate of perjury occuring in front of the juries. To be more concise and clear to the point, Greenspan's book is a diary of controversial and beneficial issues which have hovered around our criminal courts and will continue to plague and pester them for years to come. By observing and understanding certain issues presented in his book, I was able to comprehend what type of person Greenspan is, what he believes in, what he represents and what he would do for his profession. The wheels of Jurisprudence are always turning, and I came to realise how Greenspan worked and bargained for his status in the country to be solidified. This book also flourished with innovative situations pertaining to the most diversified of criminal charges, to the most uncanny regions of law ever dealt. It was this thorough look at Greenspan's life which impressed this reviewer the most. It was quite clear that after the fourth page, I came upon the conclusion that this casebook would create a most influential reaction to anyone who had displayed any interest towards our Law system in general. Part One of the novel, No Little Clients, presents the reader with the author's proposed thesis. His ambition is to defend innocent people accused of crimes. Whether they are innocent or guilty without being proven guilty is irrelevant to Mr. Greenspan. A lawyer's consience must not be his deciding factor when advising or couns...